Historically the Aerospace & Defense (A&D) industry has been risk-averse and spends very little on research and development (measured by the percentage of R&D sales). This has led to the rise of new rapidly expanding competitors (e.g. SpaceX) that can innovate much more quickly. In addition, legacy A&D companies must now compete against rapidly growing competitors from developing economies (such as China) that are expanding their defense capabilities and industries. This is causing a shift in industry initiatives to making better decisions on capital and R&D expenditures and increase agility by providing more support for new technologies, partnerships and data analytics which encourages innovation, reduced costs, and shortened time to market.